Domain range

Multi-Domain Computing and Zone Controller Research Report, 2022


Cross-Domain Computing and Zone Controller Research: Five design ideas progress side by side. In the trend towards higher levels of autonomous driving, smart vehicles place more stringent requirements in aspects such as computing power, communication bandwidth, software and security.

New York, Aug. 23, 2022 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — announces the release of “Multi-domain Computing and Zone Controller Research Report, 2022” –
This trend facilitates the evolution of automotive E/E architectures from centralized domain to integrated multi-domain and then to (near) central computing architecture. At present, there are mainly five kinds of automotive multi-domain computer design ideas:

Driving and parking integration and cockpit and driving integration are the important directions of multi-domain computing.

In terms of driving and parking integration, the low-speed parking function was previously integrated into the cockpit area to form a so-called integrated cockpit-parking solution. With the move towards high computing power platforms, 2022 will undoubtedly be the first year of the development of L2+ driving and parking integration, and more vehicles will support multi-scenario autonomous driving , for example, turn signals for automatic lane change, ramp-to-ramp self-driving, home-AVP and fully automated parking.

Integrating the ride into the cockpit is the direction in which many OEMs and Tier 1 suppliers are moving. It is planned that serial production and installation of integrated cockpit driving solutions will be carried out in 2024-2025. From the chip vendors, it can be seen that the Qualcomm 8795 chip that enables multi-domain integrated cockpit computing and autonomous driving will be mass-produced in 2024 at the earliest; Chinese vendors like ThunderSoft and Haomo.AI have embarked on research and development; In addition to autonomous driving, NVIDIA Orin X will also fully integrate cockpit application development to enable the fusion of autonomous driving and in-cab algorithms through the NVIDIA DRIVE IX software stack.

IDC integrated domain controller solution for iMotion high/low speed driving and parking

iMotion focuses on the development of autonomous driving domain controllers. Following the acquisition of orders for more than 100,000 sets from ZEEKR 001 in October 2021, the company’s high computing power autonomous driving controllers have been nominated by several leading OEMs like Great Wall Motor, Chery , Geely and SMART for a range of their vehicle models.

iMotion has also released a domain controller IDC product that integrates driving and parking capabilities such as Urban NOA and AVP. The IDC product has IDC MID (standard) and IDC HIGH (upgrade) versions, the standard version of which is to be delivered and fitted to new vehicle models of some major automakers in 2022.

iMotion’s end-to-end all-scenario intelligent driving solution takes the integrated driving and parking domain controller as the carrier. Based on L2++ smart driving and smart parking, this solution collects and trains unknown scene data and updates optimized algorithms by using built-in hardware points and remote software OTA update technology, and by optimizing and by verifying the closed loop of Big Data. It constantly improves intelligent driving algorithms with the aim of adapting to more complex scenarios, finding application in ever more scenarios, and ultimately being available for all scenarios.

In addition to the integration of driving and parking, the integration of the areas of intelligent driving and intelligent cockpit is also a megatrend. iMotion works with its partners to explore multi-domain integrated solutions.

Neusoft Reach’s integrated driving and parking domain controllers continue to upgrade and iterate.

Neusoft Reach X-Box fourth generation autonomous driving domain controller is a new standard L2+ domain controller product developed under SDV development model. Based on Horizon Journey 5 series AI chips, the product offers L2+ driving and parking functions, and supports access to 8M cameras, 4D point cloud radars and LiDAR, with scenarios covering freeways, urban freeways, some urban roads and several types of parking lots.

X-Box adopts the design scheme of SOA software architecture, that is, software and algorithms are developed using the modular and service-oriented development model. The product enables cooperative autonomous driving of devices and cloud under a closed-loop data mechanism and supports next-generation automotive E/E architectures. It enables intra-domain and cross-domain service subscription and discovery, flexible software deployment and rapid application layer iteration, and realizes functions such as fully open system architecture, comprehensive open multidimensional software and joint development, allowing partners to quickly develop applications and reuse software. It also provides many software development tools for developer partners.

Meanwhile, in terms of safety and security, X-Box is developed in accordance with ISO 26262 functional safety and ISO 21434 cybersecurity standards. It implements the strategy of minimal risk in typical driving and parking scenarios and deploys secure boot/store/upgrade/communication modules in endpoint vehicle, cloud and smartphone connection systems. It helps automakers provide driving safety and cybersecurity guarantees to consumers. Neusoft Reach provides autonomous driving domain controller solutions for automakers at different levels through standardized hardware, software platforms and tool-based services.

HPC integrated into the cockpit of SAIC Z-ONE
SAIC Z-ONE plans to create a two-domain integrated I/O architecture in 2024, which consists of two high-performance computing (HPC) units and four zone controllers. This one, the integrated cockpit driving HPC will be used to create the modular and scalable software and hardware integrated architecture that combines intelligent cockpit and high-level autonomous driving.

The vehicle’s central control area was the first to be mass-produced.

Some OEMs are currently making crucial deployments in integrating the vehicle’s body, chassis and power domains into a central control domain which then combines with an intelligent cockpit and intelligent driving domains to form a classic architecture at three areas. From the time nodes, it can be seen that several vehicle models based on tri-domain architectures were mass-produced and marketed in 2021-2022. Three-domain integrated architectures will then introduce zone controllers for a smooth evolution to zonal architectures.

Li Auto’s three-domain integrated architecture: LEEA 2.0
In June 2022, Li Auto unveiled L9, its new model which adopts three-domain integrated architecture. The whole car is divided into three areas: central control area, autonomous driving area and intelligent cockpit area. The central control domain controller merges with power, body and some chassis functions, allowing multi-domain integration.

Aptiv Central Vehicle Controller (CVC)
At CES 2022, Aptiv introduced Central Vehicle Controller (CVC), its three-domain integrated controller of body, power, and chassis. The CVC can act as a power and body controller, propulsion and chassis controller, data network router, gateway, firewall, zone master and data storage hub, all combined – or it may perform a combination of some of these functions. It is applicable to zonal architectures.
Zone controllers are the key component that carries “multi-domain + core computing”.

The Zonal Control Unit (ZCU) is the central hub and zonal data center for various types of sensor collectors/actuator drivers within physical zones of vehicles. It is an efficient solution for transporting physical vehicle interfaces, distributing power, and balancing different input/output controls across zones, thereby supporting cross-domain integration inside smart cars.

The ZCU can reduce the use of ECU, greatly reduce the cost of wire harnesses, and reduce the weight and communication interfaces, which saves space and optimizes the use of computing power . Currently, most OEMs have planned for 2-6 ZCUs to be used in their next-generation multi-domain computing architectures.

Tesla ZCU layout diagram
In Tesla’s case, the Model 3’s core computer architecture uses three ZCUs in the front body control module, left body control module, and right body control module respectively. They support power distribution, drive, and logic control across all physical areas. Tesla Model Y uses fewer ZCUs (2 units), cancels the front body control module, and integrates the function into the left and right body control modules, which means further integration of ZCU functions.

Aptiv ZCU Product – Power Data Center (PDC)
In January 2022, Aptiv introduced Power Data Center (PDC), its area controller product installed in the front and rear of the vehicle body.

Aptiv PDC extracts the inputs/outputs (I/O) of sensors and actuators around the vehicle from the computing power (OSP, HVAC, etc. responsible for processing), and also greatly simplifies hardware interchangeability by eliminating the dependency of the device layer to the computing layer via standardized service-based APIs.
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